If God knows everything , how do human beings have free-will ? Does that make God responsible for evil that happens in the universe? What do you think of the statement God is responsible for everything that happens in the universe?
The fact that Allah knows everything does not mean we have no free-will. Let me explain further:
Allah is the All-Knowing, no doubt about that. If He was not the All-Knowing that would mean He is ignorant, and ignorance is not something we can ever attribute to Allah. He is the Creator of the Universe, of the seen and unseen, and He is our Lord who knows everything about us and the rest of His creation.
The fact that Allah knows everything does not mean this knowledge will interfere in our choice or free-will. Allah has commanded the pen to write down everything that will happen in a book that is with Him, but none of that knowledge is known to us.
That knowledge that Allah has will not be used against us on the Day of Judgement and Allah will not say: ”You go to Hell because I knew, and because I wrote.”
No, it does not work like that.
Imagine a teacher giving grades to his students without them taking the test. Because he knows his students he just gives them A+, B-, D, F and so forth, saying ”This student I know he’s smart so he will get an A+ etc.”
What will happen? The students who get failed will sue the teacher and he will be put behind bars for fraud, because the students will say they studied hard but were not tested and just given a grade.
But what if the teacher, before giving the tests, determines according to his knowledge which student will get an A, B, C and so forth, and writes this down on a piece of paper, then gives his students the tests and the results are exactly the same as the teacher predetermined.
Then, did the predetermination of the teacher interfere in the failure of some students? No.
They failed because they did not study. Similarly, Allah wrote because he knows, that’s it. And that writing will not be used against you. Rather, there are two angels, one on each of your shoulders who writes everything that you do, and this writing will be given to you on the Day of Judgment, and Allah will say: ”Read your book, is there any mistake, is there anything you did not do?”
And the record [of deeds] will be placed [open], and you will see the criminals fearful of that within it, and they will say, “Oh, woe to us! What is this book that leaves nothing small or great except that it has enumerated it?” And they will find what they did present [before them]. And your Lord does injustice to no one. [18:49]
So just because Allah has knowledge of things does not mean He has forced us. He has given us tools to think with, to act with, with full ability in us. Allah has created us with ability, He says in the Quran:
If you wish to disbelieve and go to Hell, go for it. If you wish to believe and go to Paradise, go for it. Nobody is forcing you.
The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allaah be upon him) said: “All of my ummah will enter Paradise except those who refuse.” It was said: O Messenger of Allaah, who refuses? He said: “Those who obey me will enter Paradise, and those who disobey me have refused.”
We have a free-will, no doubt about that. We are the true doers of our actions, it’s not Allah who is eating for us or drinking for us, we are praying, fasting, going to the mosque and so forth. They are our deeds and we are responsible for them.
So where does Allah’s will/predestination fit inside this story?
The Prophet (blessings and peace of Allaah be upon him) said:
“Allaah has written a register with the names and lineages of all the people destined for Jannah. The register has already been totalled and no person will be added or deleted from it until the Day of Qiyaamah. Allaah has also written a register with the names and lineages of all the people destined for Jahannam. The register has already been totalled and no person will be added or deleted from it until the Day of Qiyaamah.
Regardless of what the person destined for Jannah does, his concluding actions will be those of the people of Jannah. Similarly, regardless of what the person destined for Jahannam does, his concluding actions will be those of the people of Jahannam.
A fortunate person (one destined for Jannah) can sometimes be treading the path of the unfortunate ones (destined for Jahannam) so much so that it will be said, ‘He seems to be one of them (those destined for Jahannam). Nay! It seems that he actually is one of them.’ However, his good fortune then finds him and rescues him (placing him on the path to Jannah).
An unfortunate person (one destined for Jahannam) can also sometimes be treading the path of the fortunate ones (destined for Jannah) so much so that it will be said, ‘He seems to be one of them (those destined for Jannah). Nay! It seems that he actually is one of them.’ However, his ill fortune then removes him (from this path and places him on the path to Jahannam).
Whoever has been registered as a fortunate person in the Lowhul Mahfoodh will not be removed from this world until he carries out actions that qualify him for good fortune, even though he does such an act a split second before his death.
On the other hand, whoever has been registered as an unfortunate person in the Lowhul Mahfoodh will not be removed from this world until he carries out actions that qualify him for ill fortune, even though he does such an act a split second before his death.
Actions are judged according to those done at the end.”
This is a very important hadith and a true one but needs explanation or else people might be sent astray and make people doubt the justice of Allah. A similar hadith was recorded in a different wording, making things more clear to us.
The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “A man may do the deeds of [the people of] Paradise, or so it seems to the people, although he is one of the people of Hell, and a man may do the deeds of [the people of] Hell, or so it seems to the people, although he is one of the people of Paradise.”
As it seems, the apparant deeds of those actions look good, such as hajj, salah, zakat etc. But what do we need for a action to be good? We need the intention, it needs to be purely for the sake of Allah, you can be doing those actions for another cause other than Allah.
So Allah knew this man’s heart, and no one knows what in this man’s heart except Allah. He knew that he was not doing those seemingly good actions for Allah, therefore Allah wanted to expose him at the end of his life, so he was exposed, that those seemingly good actions were not truly good, they were not for the sake of Allah.
So Allah made him do something bad for which he deserves hell fire, and then he dies upon that, and go to Hell. So he deserved it, because he was not worshipping Allah all this time, he was just showing off. So Allah did not do injustice to him when he put him in hell-fire..
The other guy, which seemed to be doing actions of the people of hell fire, the man eventually repented sincerely to Allah, and he did one action after that, after sincere repentance, he went to Paradise because that one good action was enough for him to go to Paradise.
Another very important hadith is that of Ibn Masud (may Allah have mercy on him) in which the The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “(The matter of the Creation of) a human being is put together in the womb of the mother in forty days, and then he becomes a clot of thick blood for a similar period, and then a piece of flesh for a similar period. Then Allah sends an angel who breathes the soul into him, and is ordered to write four things. He is ordered to write down his (i.e. the new creature’s) deeds, his livelihood, his (date of) death, and whether he will be blessed or wretched (in religion). So, by Allah the One, a man amongst you may do good deeds till there is only a cubit between him and Paradise and then what has been written for him decides his behavior and he starts doing (evil) deeds characteristic of the people of the (Hell) Fire. And similarly, a man amongst you may do (evil) deeds till there is only a cubit between him and the (Hell) Fire, and then what has been written for him decides his behavior, and he starts doing deeds characteristic of the people of Paradise.”
This writing however, the writing of the Angels, is not similar to the writing on the persevered tablet with Allah. Because in this writing abrogation can occur. That’s why Umar ibn Al-Khattab used to make Dua to Allah: ”If you have written me as mischievous in the Hereafter, erase that, and write me as happy, erase it from the book in the hands of the Angels.”
So this can change, but this change is in the persevered tablet/book with Allah. Because He is the All-Knowing, He already had this knowledge. So the tablet with Allah is like the ”original writing”, if we may call it like that, and that of the angels is like a subdivision of that.
I hope that cleared things up for you, if you have any more questions you can ask me and I will try to explain it better Insha’Allah.
Day 19 - A picture of any anime character in a swimsuit
Saber - Fate/Zero
Honestly i think he is the SADDEST master in fate/zero who bears the most pain and is living a miserable life :(